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Title IX – Sports
The interpretation of Title IX in sports and education is surrounded by controversy. Title IX was designed to ensure equality in sports between men and women. Although some type of equalization mechanism appears to be necessary, there has been some controversy in education regarding the interpretation of Title IX. In sports in particular, there are many examples where Title IX has led to the demise of college sports teams—all in a misguided attempt to equalize sports for both sexes.
Rod Paige, Secretary of Education, established the Commission on Opportunity in Athletics in mid-2002. COA, short for Commission, is tasked with ensuring fairness for all college athletes by finding ways of better implementation and increasing opportunities for beneficiaries. COA’s primary purpose was to collect, analyze, and obtain information from the public, with the goal of using federal standards to ensure that men and women, boys and girls, have equal opportunity and participation in athletics.
The COA was managed by Cynthia Cooper along with Ted Leland who served as co-chair with Rod Page. Cynthia, a former Houston Comets player, coached the WNBA’s Phoenix Mercury and was a member of the women’s basketball team in the 1988 and 1992 Olympics. Leland is the director of athletics at Stanford University.
The COA held 4 town hall meetings in San Diego, Atlanta, Colorado Springs, and Chicago. The purpose of these meetings was to give the public an opportunity to present their comments on Title IX, past and future. In early 2003, the commission issued its final report. The report made 23 recommendations to the Education Secretary. Many of the recommendations were unanimous but controversial recommendations passed by an 8-5 vote. Controversial opinions were related to compliance of non-scholarship athletes for the 1st prong test and the allowance of interest surveys for the 3rd shoes test compliance determination. However, Rod Paige declared that he would only consider votes passed unanimously. For this, the Education Department was required to do the following.
* Show his continued and unwavering support to ensure equal opportunities for boys and girls, women and men.
* Ensure uniform enforcement of laws throughout the US.
* Ensure that each of the 3 statutory compliance tests has equal weightage.
* Make sure schools appreciate that the Department of Education is not open to the idea of collusion to comply with the law (Title IX, 2008).
Patsy T. Mink mainly wrote the Education Act which guaranteed equal opportunity for education to all people. The law enacted in 1972 was formerly known as Title IX of the Education Reform Act and generally states that no one shall be prevented from benefiting from a given educational program or from benefiting from activities that receive financial support from the federal government. their gender. Title IX has had the greatest impact on athletics at the high school and college level even though the original law did not mention athletics. The law has broad coverage of complaints due to discrimination in academic activities, mathematics, science education, other aspects of academic life, for example the ability to use hostels and other health care facilities. The same applies to activities such as cheerleaders, clubs, and school bands, which are non-sports activities. However, the law’s requirements leave Girls State together with social fraternities such as Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, and Boys State, which are gender specific (Title IX, 2008).
The administration under Jimmy Carter interpreted the law in the late 70s when the Department of Health, Education and Welfare introduced a “3 prong test” of compliance for institutions. There are three prongs as shown below:
* First Point- The athletic opportunities provided shall be proportional to the number of students enrolled or
* 2nd Prong- Representation or display of increased athletic opportunities for internalized sex
* Part III- Under-representation of sexual interest along with abilities should be fully and effectively addressed.
Any organization that is a beneficiary of federal funds must demonstrate compliance with any of the three prongs in order to comply with Title IX (Title IX, 2008).
The federal government has issued new guidelines regarding the implementation of Title IX. Title IX made it possible to increase women’s participation in sports, but new guidelines allow schools to cut athletic opportunities if they find students aren’t interested through Internet surveys.
However, critics were quick to point out that the new guidelines significantly weakened the 33-year-old law that outlawed gender-based discrimination in schools receiving federal funds.
Under the new guidelines, the Department of Education has allowed schools to show that they offer opportunities by asking students to fill out forms online to express interest in sports. Schools are free to notify students about the survey via e-mail. If surveys receive low responses, schools can still go ahead and use limited responses to argue against forming new teams in a given sport of a gender that is not adequately represented. The Department of Education on its part agreed with the fact that the response level could be low but continued to state that it would be interpreted as disinterest depending on the gender in question.
Choundri expressed concern that students may fail to open such e-mails. However, not everyone was against the new guidelines as the director of the College Sports Council, Eric Pearson, said the new guidelines were a better alternative to gender quotas. If there are fewer women in an athletic program compared to the total student population of a school or college, it will be easier for schools and colleges to argue their case in court, he added. This rule has been contested, especially in some schools where the less practiced men’s sport, called wrestling, had to be abolished to balance the number of women and men participating in athletics, taking into account the total number of students in the school or college.
Well, many would argue that Title IX is good for women’s sports. Most of it is true but at what cost? The law was based on the premise that universities that received federal funding could not use gender as a means of discrimination. However, by attempting to address the problem of low female participation in sports, Title IX has actually discriminated against men! This topic has been discussed many times before: the Department of Health, Education and Welfare requires schools to ensure that the choice of sports, including the level of competition, accommodates the abilities and interests of both sexes.
This is probably not surprising; Just as boys show less interest in drill team than girls, men show more interest in sports than women. Some colleges have had a hard time trying to find enough women to participate in sports. To illustrate this more clearly, a wrestling coach explains that if 1000 boys and 100 girls are interested in the same sport in a given sport, you will get 100 boys and 100 girls a chance. This raises many questions. This issue of proportionality is so strict that it is impossible to play for a given team without a scholarship because the numbers will not even end.
The Office of Civil Rights in 1979 placed this stricture in proportionality. However, the original statute clearly states that Title IX does not mean to discriminate against one sex if there is an imbalance in the population. from the two sexes participating in a given sport. Therefore, with the benefits that the law brings to sports, men are being (wrongly) discriminated against, especially in what are known as minor sports.
Significant progress has been made in gender and racial equality over the years. Wage differentials between members of different castes have been studied for many years. Gender discrimination and underrepresentation of minorities in head coaching positions under the auspices of Title IX have been hotly debated. This website would like to provide you with a summary of abstracts, examinations of the academic literature, and top media articles, etc., that show the disintegration of coaches with players in top professional sports leagues due to racism.
Many people question whether football in this country is institutionally racist as past generations have faced racism in the NFL. Of the two hundred and seventy-six coaching and management positions in professional football, only six people are black. About twenty-two percent of the players are African American, but only two percent of the management. However, the good part is that management has recognized that there is actually a problem that needs their attention. Football leagues like Premier League, Football Association, League Managers Association have merged with PFA. They agree that there is an urgent need to find out any aspect of the selection criteria that discriminates against blacks so that in future posts are filled on merit alone.
It is well known that Title IX aims to ensure equality of female athletes with their male counterparts in various sports. However, there is more to it than sports; Drama, other extracurriculars, band etc.
Thus, for athletic programs, these are the requirements of Title IX:
* Women and men should have equal opportunities in sports
* Women should receive funding/scholarships commensurate with their participation – this can be found at the W omen’s Sports Foundation.
* Women should get the same benefits as men. This includes coaching, practice facilities, travel and allowances etc.
Title IX is designed to promote equality in sports between men and women. It is useful to have some sort of equalizing force in place; However, there are many problems with how courts interpret Title IX. Title IX has generated a lot of controversy in education, and especially in sports. There are many examples where Title IX has led to the demise of some college sports teams. It’s time to fix the flaws and illogical fractions of Title IX.
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