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Ultraviolet Light and Tints – A Guide to Choosing Your Sunglasses
the light Electromagnetic waves travel as waves, similar to waves on the ocean with peaks and troughs. We specify different colors of light according to the wavelength of radiation it emits. (Wavelength is the distance between two adjacent peaks or troughs of that wave). Since the wavelength of light is very short, these measurements are very small and are measured in units “nanometer” (nm)Where a nanometer is one billionth of a meter!
Think of the colors of the rainbow, red on the outside of the curve and blue/violet on the inside. The wavelength of red is 710nm, green is 500nm and blue/violet is 400nm. So as we go from the red end of the visible spectrum to the blue end, the wavelength gets shorter. Between 400nm and 100nm wavelengths, ultra-violet lies beyond the blue/violet band, but the human eye usually cannot see light with wavelengths shorter than 400nm, making us invisible ultra-violet light – so we call it UV rays.
Although UV radiation is invisible to humans, many animals and insects can detect UV light, which they use to help them find prey. For example, kestrels can detect the UV light given off by the urinals that field voles move to. Around, so high in the sky, when these birds of prey look for many urine marks on the ground, this indicates a good place to look for holes.
One possible reason why we can’t detect UV light is that the crystalline lens in the human eye has evolved to focus only on a limited range of colors, which helps give us a sharp image of what we see, but if we can focus on it, wavelengths A large range can cause chromatic aberration, a visual distortion that will reduce image clarity.
Depending on the wavelength, ultra-violet radiation can be divided into three main bands or groups:
1. UVC radiation – 100 to 290nm
UVC rays are absorbed by the all-important ozone layer that surrounds the Earth as part of the outer atmosphere, preventing these rays from reaching the ground.
2. UVB radiation – 290 to 320nm
UVB radiation is the most dangerous, as it can damage the eyes and cause sunburn on the skin. UVB is the cause snow-blindness, where radiation causes inflammation of the cornea and conjunctivitis after several hours of exposure, causing a photochemical reaction, causing swelling of the cornea (edema) and inflammation of the surrounding tissues. A swollen, edematous cornea becomes cloudy – hence the blurred vision, and also very painful. There is photophobia (aversion to any exposure to light) and spasm of the eyelids. It usually lasts for a few days, and is relieved by local anesthetic drops, amethocaine 1%, to relieve pain, and 0.01% adrenaline drops to reduce congestion.
UVB radiation does not pass through glass, so plain glass lenses prevent it from reaching the eye. Polycarbonate, a type of plastic sometimes used for eyeglass and sunglass lenses, cuts that out entirely.
Some believe that regular exposure to UVB radiation, over a period of time, can cause cataracts to form at a younger age than normal and lead to the development of pterygia, which is an overgrowth of tissue encroaching on the side of the cornea.
UVB radiation varies with the time of day, being most intense between 10am and 2pm when the sun is at its brightest. It is stronger at higher altitudes and more intense near the equator due to the direct nature of the Sun’s rays in this region.
3. UVA radiation – 320 to 400nm
In contrast to UVB, whose intensity varies with the time of day, UVA radiation is more constant with less variation. Also it is not blocked by glass, and can still reach the eye. However, the human eye’s crystalline lens absorbs most UVA radiation, so hardly any UVA is allowed to reach the back of the eye. There is no evidence that UVA causes eye damage, although scientific opinion is still divided and debated.
UVA radiation was thought to have only minor effects on the skin, but recent studies have shown that UVB causes sun damage to the surface layers of the skin, while UVA penetrates the deeper layers of the skin, causing further damage. .
UV radiation not only reaches us directly from the sun, but a large portion of it is reflected off various surfaces around us and reaches our eyes and skin indirectly. Fresh snow can reflect the most, with up to 80% reflecting UV rays. On a beach holiday, sand can reflect up to 15% of UV light, along with concrete buildings and walls etc. Foamy, foamy sea reflects 25%, while still water and normal land reflect about 10% of UV rays.
Choosing your sunglasses tint
Ideally, you should go for a tint that absorbs at least 98% of UVA and UVB radiation. If you see a label “UV400”This means that all radiation up to 400nm (thus all UV radiation) is absorbed or blocked by the lens.
Dark grey, grey/green or brown are the three main colors to choose from and it’s a matter of personal preference. I, myself, prefer gray or grey/green, as they seem to keep colors true to life, but many people like brown as it can increase contrast and help make things stand out. An amber colored tint is used to block blue light, which again increases contrast, making the image sharper. So amber tint can be used for skiing, sailing, flying, target shooting etc.
A lens made from Polycarbonate Most UV rays are absorbed, and it is best to wrap around the designs to prevent light from entering the eyes from the sides.
Children and UV light
While UV damage can build up over years of exposure, such as vacationing in warm bright weather or playing outside on a sunny day, children and young adults are at particular risk, and you should always consider some form of eye protection. Although they seem to cope with brighter light than our adults (for example, when playing at the beach). Wearing a peak hat isn’t really enough protection, because a lot of UV rays are reflected off the ground (see “Reflected light” earlier) and directly into the eyes, especially on sandy beaches. Make sure sunglasses have full UV protection.
Advice on which tint to choose for sunglasses
Various color tints are available to enhance vision and improve visual comfort for most activities. Sunglasses are very important because they reduce glare and protect against harmful ultraviolet radiation. The main tints available can be divided into neutral gray, polarizing, yellow-brown, green, red and photochromic.
1. Neutral gray
It filters all wavelengths of light equally and makes colors look more natural than other color tints. Gray tints are good for activities where subtle color differences are important, such as golf, hiking, and skiing.
2. Polarized tints
Polarized tints are good for reducing the glare of light reflecting off surfaces such as water or wet roads, making them a good choice for fishing, water-sports, driving or cycling (on wet surfaces). However, polarized lenses can also reduce important details in skiing or golf.
3. Yellow / amber tints
Yellow or amber tints help increase contrast by blocking the blue end of the visible spectrum, resulting in reduced blue light scattering. They increase contrast in contours and brighten things up in low light. This makes a yellow or amber tint good for shooting, snow sports, driving or cycling.
4. Shades of green
Shades of green help to enhance the background, making them a good choice for golf, tennis and some forms of shooting, where objects need to stand out against the background.
5. A shade of red
Red tints enhance objects at the red end of the spectrum and can be used in clay-pigeon shooting where the target is orange, in skiing to counteract changes in reflected light, or to reduce reflected glare in motor sports. road
6. Mirror tints
Mirror tints limit glare, increase absorption and reduce infra-red, thus reducing heat gain. Mirror tints are good for snow sports, water sports, cycling and running.
7. Anti-reflection coatings
Anti-reflective coatings reduce lens reflections, especially from the back surface, and are recommended for racket sports, fishing, shooting and archery.
8. Photochromic tints
In photochromic tints the darkness of the tint varies with the light level, usually between about 20% and 80% transmission. Generally, two photochromic colors are available, brown or gray. Photochromic lenses are good for sports played in variable light levels, such as golf or tennis.
The following list summarizes the tints suggested for various sports and activities:-
- cycling – Polarization, yellow/amber
- Golf – Green, Neutral Grey, Yellow/Amber, Brown
- shooting – Red-brown, orange, yellow to brown, green
- Skiing – Brown, Red/Orange, Neutral Grey
- Tennis – green
- fishing – polarized
- Motor sports – Polarization, yellow, red
- water sports – Brown or gray polarization
- is running – Green, neutral gray
- Football and fast ball sports – Amber
I hope this guide has been of some use to you, but please remember that it is Just a guideSo feel free to take it “light” (excuse the pun – I couldn’t resist) because the tint color you choose for your sunglasses is very personal, so if you prefer a specific tint color that falls outside of these guidelines – don’t worry. As long as it blocks all ultraviolet light (UV400) then that’s all that matters. Enjoy your sunglasses!
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